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Version: 3.13

STOMP Plugin


RabbitMQ supports STOMP via a plugin that ships in the core distribution. The plugin supports STOMP versions 1.0 through 1.2 with some extensions and restrictions.

STOMP clients can interoperate with other protocols. All the functionality in the management UI and several other plugins can be used with STOMP, although there may be some limitations or the need to tweak the defaults.

Enabling the Plugin

The STOMP plugin is included in the RabbitMQ distribution. Before clients can successfully connect, it must be enabled using rabbitmq-plugins:

rabbitmq-plugins enable rabbitmq_stomp

Plugin Configuration

TCP Listeners

When no configuration is specified the STOMP Adapter will listen on all interfaces on port 61613 and have a default user login/passcode of guest/guest.

To change the listener port, edit your Configuration file, to contain a tcp_listeners variable for the rabbitmq_stomp application.

For example, a minimalistic configuration file which changes the listener port to 12345 would look like:

stomp.listeners.tcp.1 = 12345

while one which changes the listener to listen only on localhost (for both IPv4 and IPv6) would look like:

stomp.listeners.tcp.1 =
stomp.listeners.tcp.2 = ::1:61613

TCP Listener Options

The plugin supports TCP listener option configuration.

The settings use a common prefix, stomp.tcp_listen_options, and control things such as TCP buffer sizes, inbound TCP connection queue length, whether TCP keepalives are enabled and so on. See the Networking guide for details.

stomp.listeners.tcp.1 =
stomp.listeners.tcp.2 = ::1:61613

stomp.tcp_listen_options.backlog = 4096
stomp.tcp_listen_options.recbuf = 131072
stomp.tcp_listen_options.sndbuf = 131072

stomp.tcp_listen_options.keepalive = true
stomp.tcp_listen_options.nodelay = true

stomp.tcp_listen_options.exit_on_close = true
stomp.tcp_listen_options.send_timeout = 120

TLS Support

To use TLS for STOMP connections, TLS must be configured in the broker. To enable TLS-enabled STOMP connections, add a TLS listener for STOMP using the stomp.listeners.ssl.* configuration keys.

The plugin will use core RabbitMQ server certificates and key (just like AMQP 0-9-1 and AMQP 1.0 listeners do):

ssl_options.cacertfile = /path/to/tls/ca_certificate.pem
ssl_options.certfile = /path/to/tls/server_certificate.pem
ssl_options.keyfile = /path/to/tls/server_key.pem
ssl_options.verify = verify_peer
ssl_options.fail_if_no_peer_cert = true

stomp.listeners.tcp.1 = 61613
# default TLS-enabled port for STOMP connections
stomp.listeners.ssl.1 = 61614

This configuration creates a standard TCP listener on port 61613 and a TLS listener on port 61614.

When a TLS listener is set up, you may want to deactivate all non-TLS ones. This can be configured like so:

stomp.listeners.tcp   = none
stomp.listeners.ssl.1 = 61614

Default User

The RabbitMQ STOMP adapter allows CONNECT frames to omit the login and passcode headers if a default is configured.

To configure a default login and passcode, add a default_user section to the rabbitmq_stomp application configuration. For example:

stomp.default_user = guest
stomp.default_pass = guest

The configuration example above makes guest/guest the default login/passcode pair.

Authentication with TLS/x509 client certificates

The plugin can authenticate TLS-enabled connections by extracting a name from the client's TLS (x509) certificate, without using a password.

For safety the server must be configured with the TLS options fail_if_no_peer_cert set to true and verify set to verify_peer, to force all TLS clients to have a verifiable client certificate.

To switch this feature on, set ssl_cert_login to true for the rabbitmq_stomp application. For example:

stomp.ssl_cert_login = true

By default this will set the username to an RFC4514-ish string form of the certificate's subject's Distinguished Name, similar to that produced by OpenSSL's "-nameopt RFC2253" option.

To use the Common Name instead, add:

ssl_cert_login_from = common_name

to your configuration.

Note that:

  • The authenticated user must exist in the configured authentication / authorisation backend(s).
  • Clients must not supply login and passcode headers.

Implicit Connect

If you configure a default user or use SSL client certificate authentication, you can also choose to allow clients to omit the CONNECT frame entirely. In this mode, if the first frame sent on a session is not a CONNECT, the client is automatically connected as the default user or the user supplied in the SSL certificate.

To enable implicit connect, set implicit_connect to true for the rabbit_stomp application. For example:

stomp.default_user = guest
stomp.default_pass = guest
stomp.implicit_connect = true

Implicit connect is not enabled by default.

Note: A client causing an implicit connect will not receive a CONNECTED frame from the server.

Proxy Protocol

The STOMP plugin supports the proxy protocol. This feature is turned off by default. To turn it on for STOMP clients:

stomp.proxy_protocol = true

See the Networking Guide for more information about the proxy protocol.

Frame Size Limit

By default frame size limit is 4Mb. When a frame exceeds the limit it's an error and connection closed.

stomp.max_frame_size = 4 * 1024 * 1024


The STOMP specification does not prescribe what kinds of destinations a broker must support, instead the value of the destination header in SEND and MESSAGE frames is broker-specific. The RabbitMQ STOMP adapter supports a number of different destination types:

  • /exchange -- SEND to arbitrary routing keys and SUBSCRIBE to arbitrary binding patterns;
  • /queue -- SEND and SUBSCRIBE to queues managed by the STOMP gateway;
  • /amq/queue -- SEND and SUBSCRIBE to queues created outside the STOMP gateway;
  • /topic -- SEND and SUBSCRIBE to transient and durable topics;
  • /temp-queue/ -- create temporary queues (in reply-to headers only).

AMQP 0-9-1 Semantics

The destination header on a MESSAGE frame is set as though the message originated from a SEND frame:

  • messages published to the default exchange are given the destination /queue/queuename;
  • messages published to amq.topic are given the destination /topic/routing_key;
  • all other messages are given the destination /exchange/exchange_name[/routing_key].

If /, % or non-ascii bytes are in the queuename, exchange_name or routing_key, they are each replaced with the sequence %dd, where dd is the hexadecimal code for the byte.

Because of these rules the destination on a MESSAGE frame may not exactly match that on a SEND that published it.

Different destinations have different queue parameter defaults. They can be controlled explicitly via headers, as explained further in this guide.

Exchange Destinations

Any exchange/queue or exchange/routing-key combination can be accessed using destinations prefixed with /exchange.

For SUBSCRIBE frames, a destination of the form /exchange/<name>[/<pattern>] can be used. This destination:

  • creates an exclusive, auto-delete queue on <name> exchange;
  • if <pattern> is supplied, binds the queue to <name> exchange using <pattern>; and
  • registers a subscription against the queue, for the current STOMP session.

For SEND frames, a destination of the form /exchange/<name>[/<routing-key>] can be used. This destination:

  • sends to exchange <name> with the routing key <routing-key>.

Note: Exchange destinations are not suitable for consuming messages from an existing queue. A new queue is created for each subscriber and is bound to the specified exchange using the supplied routing key. To work with existing queues, use /amq/queue destinations.

Queue Destinations

For simple queues, destinations of the form /queue/<name> can be used.

Queue destinations deliver each message to at most one subscriber. Messages sent when no subscriber exists will be queued until a subscriber connects to the queue.

AMQP 0-9-1 Semantics

For SUBSCRIBE frames, these destinations create a shared queue <name>. A subscription against the queue <name> is created for the current STOMP session.

For SEND frames, a shared queue <name> is created on the first SEND to this destination in this session, but not subsequently. The message is sent to the default exchange with the routing key <name>.

If no queue parameters are specified, queue will be assumed to be durable, non-exclusive, non-autodeleted.

AMQ Queue Destinations

To address existing queues created outside the STOMP adapter, destinations of the form /amq/queue/<name> can be used.

AMQP 0-9-1 Semantics

For both SEND and SUBSCRIBE frames no queue is created. For SUBSCRIBE frames, it is an error if the queue does not exist.

For SEND frames, the message is sent directly to the existing queue named <name> via the default exchange.

For SUBSCRIBE frames, a subscription against the existing queue <name> is created for the current STOMP session.

If no queue parameters are specified, queue will be assumed to be durable, non-exclusive, non-autodeleted.

Topic Destinations

Perhaps the most common destination type used by STOMP clients is /topic/<name>. They perform topic matching on publishing messages against subscriber patterns and can route a message to multiple subscribers (each gets its own copy). Topic destinations support all the routing patterns of AMQP 0-9-1 topic exchanges.

Messages sent to a topic destination that has no active subscribers are simply discarded.

AMQP 0-9-1 Semantics

For SEND frames, the message is sent to the amq.topic exchange with the routing key <name>.

For SUBSCRIBE frames, an autodeleted, non-durable queue is created and bound to the amq.topic exchange with routing key <name>. A subscription is created against the queue.

A different default exchange than amq.topic can be specified using the stomp.default_topic_exchange configuration setting:

stomp.default_topic_exchange =

Durable Topic Subscriptions

The STOMP adapter supports durable topic subscriptions. Durable subscriptions allow clients to disconnect from and reconnect to the STOMP broker as needed, without missing messages that are sent to the topic.

Topics are neither durable nor transient, instead subscriptions are durable or transient. Durable and transient can be mixed against a given topic.

Creating a Durable Subscription

To create a durable subscription, set the durable header to true in the SUBSCRIBE frame. persistent is also supported as an alias for durable for backwards compatibility with earlier plugin versions.

When creating a durable subscription to a topic destination, set auto-delete to false to make sure the queue that backs your subscription is not deleted when last subscriber disconnects.

When creating a durable subscription, the id header must be specified. For example:


AMQP 0-9-1 Semantics

For SEND frames, the message is sent to the amq.topic exchange with the routing key <name>.

For SUBSCRIBE frames, a shared queue is created for each distinct subscription ID x destination pair, and bound to the amq.topic exchange with routing key <name>. A subscription is created against the queue.

Note: a different default exchange than amq.topic can be specified using the stomp.default_topic_exchange configuration setting.

Deleting a Durable Subscription

To permanently delete a durable subscription, send an UNSUBSCRIBE frame for the subscription ID with the same durable and auto-delete header values as when subscribing.

For example:


Temp Queue Destinations

Temp queue destinations allow you to define temporary destinations in the reply-to header of a SEND frame.

Temp queues are managed by the broker and their identities are private to each session -- there is no need to choose distinct names for temporary queues in distinct sessions.

To use a temp queue, put the reply-to header on a SEND frame and use a header value starting with /temp-queue/. For example:


Hello World!

This frame creates a temporary queue (with a generated name) that is private to the session and automatically subscribes to that queue. A different session that uses reply-to:/temp-queue/foo will have a new, distinct queue created.

The internal subscription id is a concatenation of the string /temp-queue/ and the temporary queue (so /temp-queue/foo in this example). The subscription id can be used to identify reply messages. Reply messages cannot be identified from the destination header, which will be different from the value in the reply-to header. The internal subscription uses auto-ack mode and it cannot be cancelled.

The /temp-queue/ destination is not the name of the destination that the receiving client uses when sending the reply. Instead, the receiving client can obtain the (real) reply destination queue name from the reply-to header of the MESSAGE frame. This reply destination name can then be used as the value of the destination header in the SEND frame sent in reply to the received MESSAGE.

Reply destination queue names are opaque and cannot be inferred from the /temp-queue/ name.

SEND and SUBSCRIBE frames must not contain /temp-queue destinations in the destination header. Messages cannot be sent to /temp-queue destinations, and subscriptions to reply queues are created automatically.

AMQP 0-9-1 Semantics

Each /temp-queue/ corresponds to a distinct anonymous, exclusive, auto delete queue. As such, there is no need for explicit clean up of reply queues.

User generated queue names for Topic and Exchange destinations

When subscribing to an exchange or topic destination, RabbitMQ would generate a queue name by default. It is possible to provide a custom name using the x-queue-name header:


Controlling RabbitMQ Queue Parameters with STOMP

Queue properties can be controlled via STOMP headers:

  • durable (aliased as persistent)
  • auto-delete
  • exclusive

plus optional arguments ("x-arguments") for controlling dead lettering, queue and message TTL, queue limits, etc:

  • x-dead-letter-exchange
  • x-dead-letter-routing-key
  • x-expires
  • x-message-ttl
  • x-max-length
  • x-max-length-bytes
  • x-max-age (available only for streams)
  • x-stream-max-segment-size-bytes (available only for streams)
  • x-overflow
  • x-max-priority
  • x-queue-type (to be able to declare quorum queues and streams)

The meaning of every header is the same as when a queue is declared over AMQP 0-9-1. Please consult the rest of the documentation for details.

Using Policies with STOMP

RabbitMQ policies allow for flexible, centralised attribute configuration of queues and exchanges. Policies can be used with queues used by the STOMP plugin.

Policies make it possible to use more RabbitMQ features with STOMP:

All server-named queues created by the STOMP plugin are prefixed with stomp- which makes it easy to match the queues in a policy. For example, to limit STOMP queue length to 1000 messages, create the following policy:

rabbitmqctl set_policy stomp-queues "^stomp-" '{"max-length":1000}' --apply-to queues

with rabbitmqctl.bat on Windows:

rabbitmqctl.bat set_policy stomp-queues "^stomp-" "{""max-length"":1000}" --apply-to queues

Note that only one policy is applied to a queue at a time, so to specify multiple arguments (e.g. queue length limit and dead lettering) one needs to put them into a single policy.

Protocol Extensions and Restrictions

The RabbitMQ STOMP adapter relaxes the protocol on CONNECT and supports a number of non-standard headers on certain frames. These extra headers provide access to features that are not described in the STOMP specs. In addition, we prohibit some headers which are reserved for server use. The details are given below.

Connection and Virtual Hosts

The CONNECT (or STOMP) frame in STOMP 1.1 has a mandatory host header (to select the virtual host to use for the connection). The RabbitMQ adapter allows this to be optional.

When omitted, the default virtual host (/) is presumed. To configure a different default virtual host, add a default_vhost section to the rabbitmq_stomp application configuration, e.g.

stomp.default_vhost = /

If a host header is specified it must be one of the virtual hosts known to the RabbitMQ server, otherwise the connection is rejected. The host header is respected even if the STOMP 1.0 version is negotiated at the time of the connect.

Message Persistence

On the SEND frame, the STOMP adapter supports the inclusion of a persistent header.

Setting the persistent header to true has the effect of making the message persistent.

Receipts for SEND frames with persistent:true are not sent until a confirm is received from the broker. The exact semantics for confirms on persistent messages can be found here.

MESSAGE frames for persistent messages will contain a persistent:true header.


RabbitMQ STOMP plugin supports auto, client, and client-individual subscription headers that affect how ACK on NACK operations work.

The auto mode uses automatic acknowledgements. The client mode is manual (client-driven) acknowledgements of multiple messages at once. The client-individual is for message-by-message manual acknowledgement.

NACK frames can optionally carry the requeue header which controls whether the message will be requeued or discarded/dead lettered. Default value is true.


The prefetch count for all subscriptions is set to unlimited by default. This can be controlled by setting the prefetch-count header on SUBSCRIBE frames to the desired integer count.

Stream Support

The SUBSCRIBE frame supports a x-stream-offset header to specify the offset to start consuming from in a stream. A typical subscription frame for a stream will look like the following:


Note the ack and prefetch-count headers are also necessary. The x-stream-offset header has the same semantics as in AMQP 0.9.1, the possible values are:

  • first to start consuming from the first available message in the stream
  • last to start consuming from the last written chunk of messages
  • next to start consuming from the end of the stream (note the consumer will not receive messages until someone is publishing to the stream)
  • offset=<offset-value> to start from a specific offset, e.g. offset=40000
  • timestamp=<unix-time> to start from a given time, e.g. timestamp=1619432061 for 2021-04-26T10:14:21+00:00

The default value is next.

When delivering messages from a stream, the message offset (that is the position of the message in the stream) is included in the x-stream-offset header of the MESSAGE frame.

Stream filtering is also supported. The stream protocol is the preferred way to interact with streams, but most features are also available with other protocols. Stream filtering is no exception, it works the same way with STOMP as with AMQP:

  • Declaration: a stream can be created on subscription. Set the x-queue-type header to stream and use the x-stream-filter-size-bytes header to set the filter size (optional).
  • Publishing: use the x-stream-filter-value header to set the filter value for outbound messages.
  • Consuming: use the x-stream-filter header to set the expected filter value(s) (use a comma to separate values) and optionally the x-stream-match-unfiltered header (true or false) to receive messages without any filter value as well (default is false). Applications must also implement client-side filtering, as it is still possible to receive messages that do not meet the filter value(s) criteria.

Header prohibited on SEND

It is not permitted to set a message-id header on a SEND frame. The header and its value is set by the server on a MESSAGE frame sent to a client.

Queue Properties

SEND frames also allow headers corresponding to the AMQP properties available when publishing messages. These headers are also set on MESSAGE frames sent to clients.

All non-deprecated AMQP 0-9-1 properties (content-type, content-encoding, headers, delivery-mode, priority, correlation-id, reply-to, expiration, message-id, timestamp, type, user-id and app-id) are supported. The following special rules apply:

  • amqp-message-id in STOMP is converted to message-id in AMQP, and vice-versa.
  • The reply-to header causes temporary queues to be created (see Temp Queue Destinations above).
  • Some x-prefixed STOMP headers are translated into optional queue arguments (see below).

Optional Queue Properties

With RabbitMQ, SEND and SUBSCRIBE frames can include a set of headers to configure the queue behaviour, for example, use TTL or similar extensions.

The list of supported headers is

For example, if you want to use priority queues with STOMP, you can SUBSCRIBE (or SEND) with the following header:


Queue Immutability

Once a queue is declared, its properties cannot be changed. Optional arguments can be modified with policies. Otherwise the queue has to be deleted and re-declared. This is true for STOMP clients as well as AMQP 0-9-1.