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RabbitMQ tutorial - Work Queues

Work Queues

(using Spring AMQP)



This tutorial assumes RabbitMQ is installed and running on localhost on the standard port (5672). In case you use a different host, port or credentials, connections settings would require adjusting.

Where to get help

If you're having trouble going through this tutorial you can contact us through GitHub Discussions or RabbitMQ community Discord.

In the first tutorial we wrote programs to send and receive messages from a named queue. In this one we'll create a Work Queue that will be used to distribute time-consuming tasks among multiple workers.

The main idea behind Work Queues (aka: Task Queues) is to avoid doing a resource-intensive task immediately and having to wait for it to complete. Instead we schedule the task to be done later. We encapsulate a task as a message and send it to a queue. A worker process running in the background will pop the tasks and eventually execute the job. When you run many workers the tasks will be shared between them.

This concept is especially useful in web applications where it's impossible to handle a complex task during a short HTTP request window.


In the previous part of this tutorial we sent a message containing "Hello World!". Now we'll be sending strings that stand for complex tasks. We don't have a real-world task, like images to be resized or PDF files to be rendered, so let's fake it by just pretending we're busy - by using the Thread.sleep() function. We'll take the number of dots in the string as its complexity; every dot will account for one second of "work". For example, a fake task described by Hello... will take three seconds.

Please see the setup in first tutorial if you have not setup the project. We will follow the same pattern as in the first tutorial: 1) create a package tut2 and create Tut2Config, Tut2Receiver, and Tut2Sender classes. Start by creating a new package tut2 where we'll place our three classes. In the configuration class we setup two profiles, the label for the tutorial tut2 and the name of the pattern (work-queues). We leverage Spring to expose the queue as a bean. We setup the receiver as a profile and define two beans to correspond to the workers in our diagram above; receiver1 and receiver2. Finally, we define a profile for the sender and define the sender bean. The configuration is now done.

import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Profile;

@Profile({"tut2", "work-queues"})
public class Tut2Config {

public Queue hello() {
return new Queue("hello");

private static class ReceiverConfig {

public Tut2Receiver receiver1() {
return new Tut2Receiver(1);

public Tut2Receiver receiver2() {
return new Tut2Receiver(2);

public Tut2Sender sender() {
return new Tut2Sender();


We will modify the sender to provide a means for identifying whether it's a longer running task by appending a dot to the message in a very contrived fashion using the same method on the RabbitTemplate to publish the message, convertAndSend. The documentation defines this as, "Convert a Java object to a message and send it to a default exchange with a default routing key."

package org.springframework.amqp.tutorials.tut2;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.scheduling.annotation.Scheduled;
import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;

public class Tut2Sender {

private RabbitTemplate template;

private Queue queue;

AtomicInteger dots = new AtomicInteger(0);

AtomicInteger count = new AtomicInteger(0);

@Scheduled(fixedDelay = 1000, initialDelay = 500)
public void send() {
StringBuilder builder = new StringBuilder("Hello");
if (dots.incrementAndGet() == 4) {
for (int i = 0; i < dots.get(); i++) {
String message = builder.toString();
template.convertAndSend(queue.getName(), message);
System.out.println(" [x] Sent '" + message + "'");



Our receiver, Tut2Receiver, simulates an arbitrary length for a fake task in the doWork() method where the number of dots translates into the number of seconds the work will take. Again, we leverage a @RabbitListener on the hello queue and a @RabbitHandler to receive the message. The instance that is consuming the message is added to our monitor to show which instance, the message and the length of time to process the message.

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitHandler;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.util.StopWatch;

@RabbitListener(queues = "hello")
public class Tut2Receiver {

private final int instance;

public Tut2Receiver(int i) {
this.instance = i;

public void receive(String in) throws InterruptedException {
StopWatch watch = new StopWatch();
System.out.println("instance " + this.instance +
" [x] Received '" + in + "'");
System.out.println("instance " + this.instance +
" [x] Done in " + watch.getTotalTimeSeconds() + "s");

private void doWork(String in) throws InterruptedException {
for (char ch : in.toCharArray()) {
if (ch == '.') {

Putting it all together

Compile them using mvn package and run with the following options

./mvnw clean package

# shell 1
java -jar target/rabbitmq-tutorials.jar,receiver
# shell 2
java -jar target/rabbitmq-tutorials.jar,sender

The output of the sender should look something like:

Ready ... running for 10000ms
[x] Sent 'Hello.1'
[x] Sent 'Hello..2'
[x] Sent 'Hello...3'
[x] Sent 'Hello.4'
[x] Sent 'Hello..5'
[x] Sent 'Hello...6'
[x] Sent 'Hello.7'
[x] Sent 'Hello..8'
[x] Sent 'Hello...9'
[x] Sent 'Hello.10'

And the output from the workers should look something like:

Ready ... running for 10000ms
instance 1 [x] Received 'Hello.1'
instance 2 [x] Received 'Hello..2'
instance 1 [x] Done in 1.001s
instance 1 [x] Received 'Hello...3'
instance 2 [x] Done in 2.004s
instance 2 [x] Received 'Hello.4'
instance 2 [x] Done in 1.0s
instance 2 [x] Received 'Hello..5'

Message acknowledgment

Doing a task can take a few seconds. You may wonder what happens if one of the consumers starts a long task and dies with it only partly done. Spring AMQP by default takes a conservative approach to message acknowledgement. If the listener throws an exception the container calls:

channel.basicReject(deliveryTag, requeue)

Requeue is true by default unless you explicitly set:


or the listener throws an AmqpRejectAndDontRequeueException. This is typically the behavior you want from your listener. In this mode there is no need to worry about a forgotten acknowledgement. After processing the message the listener calls:


Acknowledgement must be sent on the same channel the delivery was received on. Attempts to acknowledge using a different channel will result in a channel-level protocol exception. See the doc guide on confirmations to learn more. Spring AMQP generally takes care of this but when used in combination with code that uses RabbitMQ Java client directly, this is something to keep in mind.

Forgotten acknowledgment

It's a common mistake to miss the basicAck and Spring AMQP helps to avoid this through its default configuration. The consequences are serious. Messages will be redelivered when your client quits (which may look like random redelivery), but RabbitMQ will eat more and more memory as it won't be able to release any unacked messages.

In order to debug this kind of mistake you can use rabbitmqctl to print the messages_unacknowledged field:

sudo rabbitmqctl list_queues name messages_ready messages_unacknowledged

On Windows, drop the sudo:

rabbitmqctl.bat list_queues name messages_ready messages_unacknowledged

Message persistence

Messages are persistent by default with Spring AMQP. Note the queue the message will end up in needs to be durable as well, otherwise the message will not survive a broker restart as a non-durable queue does not itself survive a restart.

To have more control over the message persistence or over aspects of outbound messages, you need to use RabbitTemplate#convertAndSend(...) methods that accept a MessagePostProcessor parameter. MessagePostProcessor provides a callback before the message is actually sent, so this is a good place to modify the message payload or headers.

Note on message persistence

Marking messages as persistent doesn't fully guarantee that a message won't be lost. Although it tells RabbitMQ to save the message to disk, there is still a short time window when RabbitMQ has accepted a message and hasn't saved it yet. Also, RabbitMQ doesn't do fsync(2) for every message -- it may be just saved to cache and not really written to the disk. The persistence guarantees aren't strong, but it's more than enough for our simple task queue. If you need a stronger guarantee then you can use publisher confirms.

Fair dispatch vs Round-robin dispatching

By default, RabbitMQ will send each message to the next consumer, in sequence. On average every consumer will get the same number of messages. This way of distributing messages is called round-robin. In this mode dispatching doesn't necessarily work exactly as we want. For example in a situation with two workers, when all odd messages are heavy and even messages are light, one worker will be constantly busy and the other one will do hardly any work. Well, RabbitMQ doesn't know anything about that and will still dispatch messages evenly.

This happens because RabbitMQ just dispatches a message when the message enters the queue. It doesn't look at the number of unacknowledged messages for a consumer. It just blindly dispatches every n-th message to the n-th consumer.

However, "Fair dispatch" is the default configuration for Spring AMQP. The AbstractMessageListenerContainer defines the value for DEFAULT_PREFETCH_COUNT to be 250. If the DEFAULT_PREFETCH_COUNT were set to 1 the behavior would be the round robin delivery as described above.

Note about prefetchCount = 1

In most of the cases prefetchCount equal to 1 would be too conservative and severely limit consumer throughput. A couple of cases where this configuration is applicable can be found in Spring AMQP Consumer Documentation

For more details on prefetch, please refer to the Consumer Acknowledgements guide.

However, with the prefetchCount set to 250 by default, this tells RabbitMQ not to give more than 250 messages to a worker at a time. Or, in other words, don't dispatch a new message to a worker while the number of unacked messages is 250. Instead, it will dispatch it to the next worker that is not still busy.

Desired prefetchCount value can be set via AbstractMessageListenerContainer.setPrefetchCount(int prefetchCount).

Note about queue size

If all the workers are busy, your queue can fill up. You will want to keep an eye on that, and maybe add more workers, or have some other strategy.

By using Spring AMQP you get reasonable values configured for message acknowledgments and fair dispatching. The default durability for queues and persistence for messages provided by Spring AMQP allow the messages to survive even if RabbitMQ is restarted.

For more information on Channel methods and MessageProperties, you can browse the javadocs online For understanding the underlying foundation for Spring AMQP you can find the rabbitmq-java-client.

Now we can move on to tutorial 3 and learn how to deliver the same message to many consumers.