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Routing

(using the Go RabbitMQ client)

Prerequisites

This tutorial assumes RabbitMQ is installed and running on localhost on standard port (5672). In case you use a different host, port or credentials, connections settings would require adjusting.

Where to get help

If you're having trouble going through this tutorial you can contact us through the mailing list.

In the previous tutorial we built a simple logging system. We were able to broadcast log messages to many receivers.

In this tutorial we're going to add a feature to it - we're going to make it possible to subscribe only to a subset of the messages. For example, we will be able to direct only critical error messages to the log file (to save disk space), while still being able to print all of the log messages on the console.

Bindings

In previous examples we were already creating bindings. You may recall code like:

err = ch.QueueBind(
  q.Name, // queue name
  "",     // routing key
  "logs", // exchange
  false,
  nil)

A binding is a relationship between an exchange and a queue. This can be simply read as: the queue is interested in messages from this exchange.

Bindings can take an extra routing_key parameter. To avoid the confusion with a Channel.Publish parameter we're going to call it a binding key. This is how we could create a binding with a key:

err = ch.QueueBind(
  q.Name,    // queue name
  "black",   // routing key
  "logs",    // exchange
  false,
  nil)

The meaning of a binding key depends on the exchange type. The fanout exchanges, which we used previously, simply ignored its value.

Direct exchange

Our logging system from the previous tutorial broadcasts all messages to all consumers. We want to extend that to allow filtering messages based on their severity. For example we may want the script which is writing log messages to the disk to only receive critical errors, and not waste disk space on warning or info log messages.

We were using a fanout exchange, which doesn't give us much flexibility - it's only capable of mindless broadcasting.

We will use a direct exchange instead. The routing algorithm behind a direct exchange is simple - a message goes to the queues whose binding key exactly matches the routing key of the message.

To illustrate that, consider the following setup:

digraph { bgcolor=transparent; truecolor=true; rankdir=LR; node [style="filled"]; // P [label="P", fillcolor="#00ffff"]; subgraph cluster_X1 { label="type=direct"; color=transparent; X [label="X", fillcolor="#3333CC"]; }; subgraph cluster_Q1 { label="Q1"; color=transparent; Q1 [label="{||||}", fillcolor="red", shape="record"]; }; subgraph cluster_Q2 { label="Q2"; color=transparent; Q2 [label="{||||}", fillcolor="red", shape="record"]; }; C1 [label=<C<font point-size="7">1</font>>, fillcolor="#33ccff"]; C2 [label=<C<font point-size="7">2</font>>, fillcolor="#33ccff"]; // P -> X; X -> Q1 [label="orange"]; X -> Q2 [label="black"]; X -> Q2 [label="green"]; Q1 -> C1; Q2 -> C2; }

In this setup, we can see the direct exchange X with two queues bound to it. The first queue is bound with binding key orange, and the second has two bindings, one with binding key black and the other one with green.

In such a setup a message published to the exchange with a routing key orange will be routed to queue Q1. Messages with a routing key of black or green will go to Q2. All other messages will be discarded.

Multiple bindings

digraph { bgcolor=transparent; truecolor=true; rankdir=LR; node [style="filled"]; // P [label="P", fillcolor="#00ffff"]; subgraph cluster_X1 { label="type=direct"; color=transparent; X [label="X", fillcolor="#3333CC"]; }; subgraph cluster_Q1 { label="Q1"; color=transparent; Q1 [label="{||||}", fillcolor="red", shape="record"]; }; subgraph cluster_Q2 { label="Q2"; color=transparent; Q2 [label="{||||}", fillcolor="red", shape="record"]; }; C1 [label=<C<font point-size="7">1</font>>, fillcolor="#33ccff"]; C2 [label=<C<font point-size="7">2</font>>, fillcolor="#33ccff"]; // P -> X; X -> Q1 [label="black"]; X -> Q2 [label="black"]; Q1 -> C1; Q2 -> C2; }

It is perfectly legal to bind multiple queues with the same binding key. In our example we could add a binding between X and Q1 with binding key black. In that case, the direct exchange will behave like fanout and will broadcast the message to all the matching queues. A message with routing key black will be delivered to both Q1 and Q2.

Emitting logs

We'll use this model for our logging system. Instead of fanout we'll send messages to a direct exchange. We will supply the log severity as a routing key. That way the receiving script will be able to select the severity it wants to receive. Let's focus on emitting logs first.

As always, we need to create an exchange first:

err = ch.ExchangeDeclare(
  "logs_direct", // name
  "direct",      // type
  true,          // durable
  false,         // auto-deleted
  false,         // internal
  false,         // no-wait
  nil,           // arguments
)

And we're ready to send a message:

err = ch.ExchangeDeclare(
  "logs_direct", // name
  "direct",      // type
  true,          // durable
  false,         // auto-deleted
  false,         // internal
  false,         // no-wait
  nil,           // arguments
)
failOnError(err, "Failed to declare an exchange")

body := bodyFrom(os.Args)
err = ch.Publish(
  "logs_direct",         // exchange
  severityFrom(os.Args), // routing key
  false, // mandatory
  false, // immediate
  amqp.Publishing{
    ContentType: "text/plain",
    Body:        []byte(body),
})

To simplify things we will assume that 'severity' can be one of 'info', 'warning', 'error'.

Subscribing

Receiving messages will work just like in the previous tutorial, with one exception - we're going to create a new binding for each severity we're interested in.

q, err := ch.QueueDeclare(
  "",    // name
  false, // durable
  false, // delete when usused
  true,  // exclusive
  false, // no-wait
  nil,   // arguments
)
failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

if len(os.Args) < 2 {
  log.Printf("Usage: %s [info] [warning] [error]", os.Args[0])
  os.Exit(0)
}
for _, s := range os.Args[1:] {
  log.Printf("Binding queue %s to exchange %s with routing key %s",
     q.Name, "logs_direct", s)
  err = ch.QueueBind(
    q.Name,        // queue name
    s,             // routing key
    "logs_direct", // exchange
    false,
    nil)
  failOnError(err, "Failed to bind a queue")
}

Putting it all together

digraph { bgcolor=transparent; truecolor=true; rankdir=LR; node [style="filled"]; // P [label="P", fillcolor="#00ffff"]; subgraph cluster_X1 { label="type=direct"; color=transparent; X [label="X", fillcolor="#3333CC"]; }; subgraph cluster_Q2 { label="amqp.gen-S9b..."; color=transparent; Q2 [label="{||||}", fillcolor="red", shape="record"]; }; subgraph cluster_Q1 { label="amqp.gen-Ag1..."; color=transparent; Q1 [label="{||||}", fillcolor="red", shape="record"]; }; C1 [label=<C<font point-size="7">1</font>>, fillcolor="#33ccff"]; C2 [label=<C<font point-size="7">2</font>>, fillcolor="#33ccff"]; // P -> X; X -> Q1 [label="info"]; X -> Q1 [label="error"]; X -> Q1 [label="warning"]; X -> Q2 [label="error"]; Q1 -> C2; Q2 -> C1; }

The code for emit_log_direct.go script:

package main

import (
        "fmt"
        "log"
        "os"
        "strings"

        "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
        if err != nil {
                log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
                panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
        }
}

func main() {
        conn, err := amqp.Dial("amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/")
        failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
        defer conn.Close()

        ch, err := conn.Channel()
        failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
        defer ch.Close()

        err = ch.ExchangeDeclare(
                "logs_direct", // name
                "direct",      // type
                true,          // durable
                false,         // auto-deleted
                false,         // internal
                false,         // no-wait
                nil,           // arguments
        )
        failOnError(err, "Failed to declare an exchange")

        body := bodyFrom(os.Args)
        err = ch.Publish(
                "logs_direct",         // exchange
                severityFrom(os.Args), // routing key
                false, // mandatory
                false, // immediate
                amqp.Publishing{
                        ContentType: "text/plain",
                        Body:        []byte(body),
                })
        failOnError(err, "Failed to publish a message")

        log.Printf(" [x] Sent %s", body)
}

func bodyFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 3) || os.Args[2] == "" {
                s = "hello"
        } else {
                s = strings.Join(args[2:], " ")
        }
        return s
}

func severityFrom(args []string) string {
        var s string
        if (len(args) < 2) || os.Args[1] == "" {
                s = "info"
        } else {
                s = os.Args[1]
        }
        return s
}

The code for receive_logs_direct.go:

package main

import (
        "fmt"
        "log"
        "os"

        "github.com/streadway/amqp"
)

func failOnError(err error, msg string) {
        if err != nil {
                log.Fatalf("%s: %s", msg, err)
                panic(fmt.Sprintf("%s: %s", msg, err))
        }
}

func main() {
        conn, err := amqp.Dial("amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/")
        failOnError(err, "Failed to connect to RabbitMQ")
        defer conn.Close()

        ch, err := conn.Channel()
        failOnError(err, "Failed to open a channel")
        defer ch.Close()

        err = ch.ExchangeDeclare(
                "logs_direct", // name
                "direct",      // type
                true,          // durable
                false,         // auto-deleted
                false,         // internal
                false,         // no-wait
                nil,           // arguments
        )
        failOnError(err, "Failed to declare an exchange")

        q, err := ch.QueueDeclare(
                "",    // name
                false, // durable
                false, // delete when usused
                true,  // exclusive
                false, // no-wait
                nil,   // arguments
        )
        failOnError(err, "Failed to declare a queue")

        if len(os.Args) < 2 {
                log.Printf("Usage: %s [info] [warning] [error]", os.Args[0])
                os.Exit(0)
        }
        for _, s := range os.Args[1:] {
                log.Printf("Binding queue %s to exchange %s with routing key %s",
                        q.Name, "logs_direct", s)
                err = ch.QueueBind(
                        q.Name,        // queue name
                        s,             // routing key
                        "logs_direct", // exchange
                        false,
                        nil)
                failOnError(err, "Failed to bind a queue")
        }

        msgs, err := ch.Consume(
                q.Name, // queue
                "",     // consumer
                true,   // auto ack
                false,  // exclusive
                false,  // no local
                false,  // no wait
                nil,    // args
        )
        failOnError(err, "Failed to register a consumer")

        forever := make(chan bool)

        go func() {
                for d := range msgs {
                        log.Printf(" [x] %s", d.Body)
                }
        }()

        log.Printf(" [*] Waiting for logs. To exit press CTRL+C")
        <forever
}

If you want to save only 'warning' and 'error' (and not 'info') log messages to a file, just open a console and type:

go run receive_logs_direct.go warning error > logs_from_rabbit.log

If you'd like to see all the log messages on your screen, open a new terminal and do:

go run receive_logs_direct.go info warning error
# => [*] Waiting for logs. To exit press CTRL+C

And, for example, to emit an error log message just type:

go run emit_log_direct.go error "Run. Run. Or it will explode."
# => [x] Sent 'error':'Run. Run. Or it will explode.'

(Full source code for (emit_log_direct.go source) and (receive_logs_direct.go source))

Move on to tutorial 5 to find out how to listen for messages based on a pattern.